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National academic center of agrarian investigations of the Republic of Kazakhstan







 The biological monitoring of the Aral (Small) Sea

and the estimation of the industrial supplies of flounder–glossa

 Project leader: Ermakhanov Z. – manager of the Aral complex fish  


Aralsk 2002


Prepared by:


Manager of Aral complex

laboratory of fish manufacture:                                                              Z. Yermahanov

The senior scientific supervisor:                                                             K. Balymbetov

Scientific supervisor:                                                                             K. Zhubanov

Sub-scientific supervisor:                                                                      A. Suhanberliyev

Sub-scientific supervisor:                                                                      O. Grishayeva

Specialist of high category:                                                                    A. Sariyev




        Report, 10 tables, 1 drawing, the source.


The object of investigation  – the Aral (Small) Sea.

        The aim of the investigation is determination of supplies of flounder–glossa and optimal permissible fishing out of it in the Small Sea. At process of work studied hydrochemical regim of the sea, the degree of pollution and accumulation of toxicants in the organisms of flounder–glossa, studied the condition of feed base of flounder–glossa in the Small Aral Sea.

        According to régime of the main hydrophysical and hydrochemical indices the water of the Small Aral Sea satisfied for the requirements living flounder–glossa and invertebrates.

        It was lowering of types of zooplanctone in 2001 comparing of last years. The base of quantity indices of zooplanctone makes two groups of organisms. The overage biomass of zooplanctone in autumn period 243,16 mg/m3. The overage biomass of bentos organisms in 2001 formed 346,85 g/m2.

        According to the results of control catching fish in the Small Aral calculated supplies of flounder–glossa and determined optimal permissible catching fish in the Small Aral.




 A t the beginning of the last century it was started fishing industry in the Aral Sea and in 1915 obtain the fish maximal – 48,3 thousand tone. In the next years catching fish was different. In the periods of between 1930 – 1960 marked the maximal catching fish in 1958, it was 43,1 thousand tones. 80 percent of fish were valuable industry fish as Abramis brama orientalis Berg, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spitcshakov, Rutilus rutilus aralensis Berg, Barbus brachycephalus brachycephalus Kessler, Chalcalburnus chalcoides aralensis (Berg), Stizostedion lucioperca (L.), Aspius aspius iblioides (Kessler).

At the result of influence to the water resource of the rivers Syrdaria and Amudaria at the last 30 years the Aral Sea transformed to the reservoir, which is the area reduced more than 2 times, the salinity increased 6–7 times comparing of its conditions in the periods before the regulation of the rivers. The temps of regression of the Aral Sea during the last 30 years were different. In 1980 were many changing in the ecosystem of the sea and its hydro fauna, which is mainly, made freshwater forms. Going out from the ichthiofauna the aborigine forms of fish was according to increasing of salinity 15 time and more. In 1980 the Aral Sea lost its fish industry reservoir.

In the case the naturalization and increasing of quantity of flounder–glossa, works for acclimatization which was started in the Aral Sea at the end of 1970, is the positive work. At the end of 1980 the flounder–glossa reached to the industry quantity. But the fish industry of the Aral Sea to the present time can not develop industrial supplies of flounder–glossa. Only last years some positive works has done in organization of industrial flounder in the Small Sea, thanks to the helps of Danish fishermen who work with the international project ``From Kattegat to the Aral Sea``.

On 1 of October in 2001 was concluded the contract between ``Aral Tenizi`` and Aralsk branch of Kazakh scientific research Institute (the leader of project Ermachanov Z. – manager of the Aral complex fish farm laboratory) for the project ``The biological monitoring of the Small Aral Sea and the estimation of the industrial supplies of flounder–glossa``. The volume of finance –300 thousand tenge. The project  has financed by ``Aral Tenizi`` within the international Project ``From Kattegat to the Aral Sea``.

According to the contract and project ``The biological monitoring of the Small Aral Sea and the estimation of the industrial supplies of flounder–glossa`` provided for to investigate following problems:

1.      To investigate hydro chemical regime (salinity, gas regime, biogenic elements etc.) of the

      Small Aral Sea.

2.    To determine the level of accumulation of toxicants in water of the Small Sea.

3.    To determine the level of accumulation of pesticides in the muscles of flounder–glossa.

4.    The condition of feed base of Small Sea: a) zooplankton, b) macrozoobentos.

5.       To investigate the provision of feed of flounder–glossa in the situation of lacking the

       Kokaral dam.

6.         To investigate the condition of flounder–glossa (size, weight, age, temp of increasing, distribution, biomass).

7.          To investigate the migration of flounder–glossa in the Small Sea, to determine the place and the time of its concentration.

         In the parts of this report were given the results of investigation and the answers for all questions, which were in the project.



Scientific research works according to the contract between ``Aral Tenizi`` and Aralsk branch of Kazakh scientific research Institute carried out on the theme: ``The biological monitoring of the Small Aral Sea and the estimation of the industrial supplies of flounder–glossa`` from the 1 of October till 15 of November in 2001. The collection of materials, hydro chemical, toxicants analyze and hydro biological regime carried out in the all parts of the Small Aral Sea. The collection of materials carried out in the regions of the villages Acbasty, Torangul, Tastubek, Akespe, river Syrdaria.

Investigation of hydro physical, hydro chemical parameters of Small Aral Sea and estuary of the river Syrdaria samples were taken 20 stations (drawing 1). In the deepwater parts the sample of the water and investigation of hydro physical, hydro chemical indices carried out on the surface and on the bottom. Determining hydro physical and hydrochemical indices carried out by general methods [1 – 4]. Determining of pesticides in the water and in the tissue of fish carried out on chromatographs ``Varian – 3700``, ``Tsvet – 560`` with the detector of electronically capture. It was used general methods of former Soviet Union’s Republics [5, 6].

The samples of zooplankton and zoobentos were taken also in the stations as hydro chemical samples.

The collections of zooplankton in the open part of Small Sea carried out on the board of the motor boat with the type ``Kazanka – 2M`` with small net Jedi from gas # 64 with the diameter 12 cm.

Collection of macrozoobentos is used Petersen´s bredger with the area of capture – 0,025 m2. Fixation and cameral processing of samples of zooplancton and zoobentos have done by the general methods [7 – 11]. Cameral and figures processing material of feeding flounder–glossa have done according to the methodical guidance [12].

The collection and processing of ichthyologic materials realized according to the methodical guidance [13, 14].

For the carrying out of control catching fish in the Small Aral Sea are used Danish nets with the size of from 50 till 75 mm. To full biological analyze put to the test ……… specimen and measured 2500 specimen of flounder–glossa.

The estimation of quantity of industrial flounder–glossa in the Small Aral carried out with the methods of Kushnarenko A. I. and Lugarev [12] with the passive equipment’s of catching of catching. In the calculation are used data of control putting nets on October–November in 2001.

In the calculation are used following data: quantity of nets in the control putting nets n =10 (size from 50 till 75 mm), the linen of each net B = 50 – 75 m, radial speed wandering of fish V= 0,1 m, the step of radial wandering of fish Z = 2 m, the duration of each putting nets t = 720 min, the coefficient of catching nets K = 0,2, the quantity calculation of probability of catching fish to the nets P = 50.

The quantity of catching Z=40. The area of catching (C) determine with the formula:


C = q v t (2 b +3,14 v t)

        The calculation of quantity of fish (N) determine formula:


Q  S


C  R  P

Q – quantity of fish, S – the area of sea, C – the area of catching, P – probability of catching fish.



In 2001 morph metrical parameters of Small Aral Sea remained on the level of as in 2000. The level of the water fluctuated within the limits of 39–40 m BS (meter of Baltic system). The connection of individual gulfs with the sea installed in over taking phenomenon's.

In the regime of soluble gas, biogenic and organically compounds there was not special changing. The salinity of the water increased at the estuary zone to 12,8 – 18,1 percent. The average salinity for the open area of the water composed in 2001 18,06 percent.

In 2001 in the waters of Syrdaria and the sea marked only chlorine organically pesticides. Comparing with the data of for 2000 in the seawater increased the concentration of toxicant, especially in the water of the river Syrdaria. The increasing of the pesticide pollution of the water of the river Syrdaria and Aral Sea connected with the using of these preparations in the basin of river Syrdaria.

In the muscular tissues of flounder–glossa registered in 2001 only chlorine organically pesticides. In the periods of observation the main tenancy of pesticides in fish increased.

All the last years the maintenance of pesticides in the muscular tissues of flounder–glossa in the Small Sea had not brought any maximum permissible standard.

At the result of destroying dam (April 1999) increased salinity of the reservoir. The development has taken by evrigalinal acclimatization.

Comparing of other years in 2001 was big lowering of species in zooplankton. The quantity of species in the group of Rotatoria brought down to 8 comparing to the year 2000, and to 27 comparing to 1998. In the group of Cladocera to 6 comparing 2000, and to 13 comparing 1998, Copepoda – to 4 and 5 species. The main quantity indices of zooplankton make two groups of organisms – Calanipeda and Mollusca.

The modern ichtiophauna of Small Sea consist of two different groups of fish. For first group includes evrigalin species: Platichthys flesus luscus (Pallas), Clupea harengus membras (Linne), Rungitius platydaster aralensis (Kessler). Their natural habitat enclosed all the area of water. The second group includes native Aral fish as Abramis brama orientalis Berg, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spitcshakov, Rutilus rutilus aralensis Berg, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.), Aspius aspius iblioides (Kessler) and others.

Evrigallinal ichtiofauna of the Aral Sea formed after some measures of acclimatization directed to increase the potential of Aral as the industrial fish reservoir. But only the works of acclimatization of flounder–glossa reached the purpose. At the present time this is only the one species of industrial fish.

The stable observation of flounder in Small Sea shows that there is no changing in the biological indices of fish and they are quite high for this kind and stable.

In the flock of flounder–glossa in the Small Sea in autumn 2001 dominant fish with the length 19 – 30 cm, make up 91,5 percent. Among females in autumn, fish have length 20 – 30 cm (85,5 percent), among males 19 – 26 (88,5 percent).

At the food spectrum flounder–glossa marked 6 components, dominant of feeding policheta Nereis and Cerastoderma. The part of destructive feeding is not great, Gobius falled to victim.

The supplies of flounder–glossa in the Aral Small Sea for our calculation consists of 4400 tone. Optimal permissible catching determined at the size of 1320 tone.




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